Zh.V. Antanovich
Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is the second most common nosocomial infection and the main cause of death from nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Most cases of NP are caused by aerobic gramnegative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp.) and gram-positive cocci (S. aureus). From a practical point of view, in order to prescribe adequate initial antibacterial therapy (ABT) it is advisable to stratify patients depending on timing of the NP development and presence of risk factors (RF) for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. MDR pathogens are more often excreted in patients with severe chronic diseases and RF for the development of NP. Diagnostic criteria and Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) are used to diagnose NP and determine its severity. The outcome of treatment of patient with NP depends on the doctor’s level of knowledge and the most rapid administration of an adequate initial empiric ABT, presented in guidelines, taking into account local data on pathogens prevailing in the department and their resistance.
keywords: nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, diagnosis, treatment, empiric antibiotic therapy, guidelines

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