N.S. Golyak
Introduction. Transdermal delivery of medicinal substances is based on the penetration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient through the intact skin, its further entry into the systemic bloodstream and, thereafter, to the target organ. Currently, gels, ointments, emulsions and transdermal therapeutic systems (transdermal patches) are used as transdermal agents. Transdermal patches are able to provide a target constant concentration of medicinal substances in blood plasma for a long time (from 1 to 7 days). Transdermal delivery has a number of advantages: increased bioavailability of medicinal substances due to the elimination of losses associated with metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver; reducing the risk of adverse reactions which can be caused by leveling of concentration jumps of the medicinal substances in the blood; painlessness and convenience; possibility to change the dose by varying the area of the patch and the duration of use; possibility to stop the treatment at any time, etc. For patients with chronic diseases requiring constant repeated oral administration of drugs, suffering from dysphagia and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the transdermal route of administration is the most optimal. In some cases, when the patient is unconscious, suffers from sclerosis, or has impaired vital functions (for example, the ability to breathe and swallow independently), transdermal delivery is optimal and in some cases is the only alternative. Purpose. To analyze the current range of drugs for transdermal delivery, to assess the role and prospects of using transdermal delivery in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The search for literary data was carried out using the PubMed and Google search engines among Russian – and English-language original articles. The search of registered drugs in the form of transdermal patches was carried out using drugs registries of the United States and other countries. When searching, the terms «transdermal delivery», «transdermal patch», «bisoprolol», «clopidogrel», «transdermal delivery», «transdermal patch» were used. Conclusion. In the global pharmaceutical market, transdermal delivery is used for a limited number of medicinal substances of different pharmacotherapeutic groups, of which only three medicinal substances (nitroglycerin, clonidine, bisoprolol) are used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Many attempts have been made to obtain and evaluate transdermal patches with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, antiplatelet agents used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but the volume of these studies is insufficient for registration and clinical use.
keywords: transdermal delivery, transdermal patch, bisoprolol, clopidogrel

for references: N.S. Golyak. Transdermal delivery of drugs and its role in therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Neotlozhnaya kardiologiya i kardioovaskulyarnye riski [Emergency cardiology and cardiovascular risks], 2020, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1057–1062

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