Latest Tables of Contents with Summaries

2020 Том 4, №2
Atrial fibrillation and adherence to oral anticoagulation: review of clinical cases
M.S. Dzeshka, S.L. Boyko, N.V. Shpak, V.A. Snezhitskiy
Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is continuously increasing. Stroke in AF patients is the most unfavorable complication of arrhythmia, clinical course being severer, neurological deficit pronounced, and mortality higher compared to stroke patients without AF. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) results in significant reduction of stroke and systemic embolism but at the same time is compromised by haemorrhagic complications. High adherence to treatment is essential for effectiveness and safety of OAC. Nonetheless, poor adherence to treatment in case of chronic diseases requiring drug regimen remains unresolved. Social, economic and demographic factors, patient’s psychological markers, inertia of the healthcare system, formalism in the implementation of recommendations in routine clinical practice, violation of the continuity between inpatient and outpatient care, limited resources and other factors lead to low adherence among patients with AF. Refusal of OAC, intermittent treatment, delayed medication with OAC, failure to follow recommendations for the control of modifiable risk factors associated with anticoagulant therapy, are transformed into a high level of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with AF. This article presents an analysis of three clinical cases of patients with complicated AF, discusses treatment from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine, the role of low adherence in the development of complications, and obstacles to increasing adherence.
Clinical case of treatment of a patient with portal hypertension developed as a result of portal vein thrombosis
E.V. Mahiliavets
Abstract. Non-cirrhotic causes of the development of portal hypertension make upabout 10%. The factors leading to its development are the development of thrombosis in the portal vein system, occlusion due to pancreatitis, pancreatic tumors, and other causes. Acute bleeding from esophageal varices is a formidable complication of portal hypertension, regardless of its etiology. The tactics of treatment and prevention of bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with portal vein thrombosis generally corresponds to that for intrahepatic portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis with some additions. Aim. Presentation of the results of clinical observation of an open Hassab operation (esophagogastric devascularization without esophageal transection + splenectomy) in a patient with portal vein thrombosis complicated by portal hypertension and esophageal varices, as well as a short literary excursion on this issue.
Unstable angina pectoris or unstable coronary syndromes?
N.P. Mitkovskaya, O.V. Laskina, Patrick Teefy
Unstable angina pectoris (UA) is a variant of acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation (NSTEACS), which is characterized by the absence of biochemical criteria for myocardial damage, a change in the clinical picture of angina pectoris (an increase in the functional class of angina pectoris, the appearance of resting angina and a high probability of transformation of the process into myocardial infarction (MI)). UA and the developed MI without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI) are not accompanied by the appearance of a pathological Q wave and are characterized by a general complex pathogenesis associated with progressive atherosclerosis, a non-occlusive thrombus in the area of erosion or rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, vasospasm, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction or other causes of imbalance between oxygen intake and oxygen consumption resulting in myocardial ischemia, and are distinguished by increased levels of myocardial necrosis in the blood in case of NSTEMI. It is difficult to differentiate UA and NSTEMI in the first hours of the development of the process when a decision is made on reperfusion technologies and drug therapy without laboratory, and in some cases, additional examination with visualization of the probable new loss of viable myocardium, therefore, the diagnosis and management of these two clinical conditions are usually considered in the same clinical recommendations. The article discusses various mechanisms of the development of myocardial ischemia, diagnostic and therapeutic invasive and non-invasive technologies that improve the prognosis of patients with UA.
ST-elevation myocardial infarction and acute ischemic kidney injury
E.Yu. Brankovskaya, L.V. Kartun, E.V. Hodosovskaya, N.P. Mitkovskaya
The aim of the study was to investigate specific clinical manifestations, homeostasis indices and parameters of the cardiovascular system in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and acute ischemic kidney injury. Methods. 173 patients with STEMI participated in the study. The study group consisted of 111 patients with acute ischemic kidney injury associated with myocardial infarction (MI); 62 patients with MI and normal kidney function were enrolled in the comparison group. Clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and instrumental diagnostic methods were used. Results. Compared with patients of the MI and normal kidney function group, those with MI and acute ischemic kidney injury had a higher average heart rate, required more prolonged vasopressor and/or inotropic therapy, and more frequently developed tachyarrhythmias with adverse prognostic impact and postinfarction aneurysms. The study revealed that patients of the MI and acute ischemic kidney injury group demonstrated more severe dilatation of the left ventricle (LV), more pronounced reduction in myocardial LV contractility according to echocardiography results; they developed multivessel coronary artery disease more frequently. Furthermore, patients of this group had a higher incidence of infarction-associated artery damage located in the proximal segments of major coronary arteries and more frequently developed thrombotic occlusion in the infarction-affected artery. Patients with MI and acute ischemic kidney injury had higher levels of inflammatory, myocardial necrosis, hemostasis and neurohormonal activation markers. Higher concentration of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) was observed in patients with MI and acute ischemic kidney injury; moreover, in 14,1% of patients belonging to this group, elevated levels of this marker preceded the diagnostically significant increase in creatinine concentration and decrease in glomerular filtration rate.
Arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation: molecular genetic aspects of pathogenesis and complex therapy, focus on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
N.V. Bukvalnaya, L.V. Yakubova, V.A. Snezhitskiy
This article is devoted to the effect of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation on patients with arterial hypertension. It is noted that the adverse effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system end products, angiotensin II and aldosterone, can be caused not only by their hyperproduction, but also by the activation of the transforming growth factor β1 initiated by them. This cytokine initiates the process of fibrosis in the left atrium, which is a substrate of arrhythmia. The article features the results of multicenter clinical trial demonstrating the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the prevention of atrial fibrillation. The review includes the analysis of the effect of polymorphic variants of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene ((I/D) ACE), the angiotensin II receptor gene type 1 ((A1166C) AGTR1), the aldosterone synthase gene (C/T (-344) CYP11B2) and the gene of the transforming growth factor β1 (G/C (+915) TGFB1) on the development of arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation, as well as on the effectiveness of therapy with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocking drugs.
Modern opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of systemic vasculitis with kidney involvement in children: researchers own data (part 2)
I.A. Kazyra, A.V. Sukalo
The aim of the study was to analyze clinical, laboratory, immunological, morphological data of children with systemic vasculitis (SV) with kidney involvement to assess mediators of the formation and progression of the disease, as well as factors affecting prognosis. Methods. 20 children (15 girls, 5 boys) with morphologically verified nephritis due to SV (age from 5 to 17 yrs, median 13.5), were under observation at the “2nd Children’s Clinical Hospital” Minsk from 2012–2020. The features of the onset of the disease in childhood are presented, the analysis of clinical, laboratory, immunological (serum concentration of T- and B-lymphocyte activation markers (RANTES and BAFF), proinflammatory (caspase 1, IL1β and TNFα), vascular (VEGF) and tissue (TGF1β) growth factors), metabolic parameters (adiponectin, leptin, obestatin, vitamin D 25 (OH) D), instrumental, morphological changes, and factors affecting the course and outcome. Statistics was carried out using the Statistica 10.0, SPSS.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 from the perspective of a promising marker of metabolic disorders and premature aging in polymorbid cardiovascular pathology in young and middle-aged people
Galina A. Proshchai, Sergey V. Dudarenko, Alexander S. Partcerniak, Elena Yu. Zagarskikh, Sergey A. Partcerniak
Objective: To evaluate the possibility of using fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF 21) as a marker of metabolic disorders and premature aging in polymorbid cardiovascular pathology. Research methods: 199 men aged 35–55 years who were stratified into 3 groups were examined: group A – 117 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes), polymorbid cardiovascular disease (PCVD), obesity, androgen deficiency and anxiety-depressive disorders (ADD); group B – 55 patients with PCVD, obesity and ADD; group C – control group (n = 27). The examination of patients included a laboratory study of the level of FGF 21, indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hormonal status, as well as daily monitoring of blood pressure and ECG. Results and conclusions. When compared with the control group, the level of FGF 21 was 3 times higher in the presence of type 2 diabetes. The most intense increase in FGF 21 levels was observed in groups of patients with several diseases. An increase in the level of FGF 21 in young and middle-aged people is probably due to a compensatory reaction to the existing androgen deficiency, disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Strong correlations between FGF 21 and glucose, HDL cholesterol, total testosterone, ALT, and SBP during the day allow FGF 21 to be considered an early marker of cardiovascular disease and premature aging (PA) in young and middle-aged people.
Medium-term outcomes after correction of long coronary artery lesions with biodegradable vascular scaffolds
N. P. Strygo, V. I. Stelmashok, O. L. Polonetsky
Aim. To establish efficacy and safety of endovascular correction of long coronary lesion with biodegradable scaffolds in comparison with everolimus-eluting metallic coronary stents. Materials and methods. From 2013 to 2018 in Republican Scientific and Practical Centre «Cardiology», Minsk, endovascular correction of long (more than 25 mm) coronary artery lesions was performed on 80 patients. Randomly patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 40) – endovascular correction with the biodegradable everolimus-eluting vascular scaffold Absorb BVS, and group 2 (n = 40) – endovascular correction with the everolimus-eluting metallic stent Xience V/Xience Pro. Results. In 12-month observational period there were no cases of death or myocardial infarction in both groups. One-year primary endpoint (death + myocardial infarction + target lesion failure) was 10% in group 1 (scaffolds BVS Absorb) and 8.75% in group 2 (Xience stents), 4 and 3 cases of target lesion failure accordingly (p > 0.05). As secondary endpoints there were 3 cases of target lesion revascularization registered and 4 cases of target vessel revascularization in each group, 5 cases of target vessel failure in group 1 and 4 cases in group 2 (p > 0.05). There was 1 case of confirmed and 1 case of probable scaffold thrombosis in group 1 (cumulative rate 5%), no cases of stent thrombosis in group 2 (p = 0.49). Conclusion. Long lesion correction with biodegradable scaffolds shows similar one-year clinical and angiographic results in comparison with everolimus-eluting stents. Combined endpoint risk (all death cases + myocardial infarction + revascularization due to target lesion failure) statistically did not differ in one-year period in both groups.
Рulse waves рropagation in small vessels: measurement results and modelling approaches
A.I. Kubarko, V.A. Mansurov, A.D. Svetlichny, L.D. Ragunovich
The objective of the research work was to develop devices and algorithm for synchronous recording of pulse waves and ECG for measuring the delay time of pulse waves in the branches of various arteries relative to the R wave on an ECG, and to carry out computer simulation of the pulse wave propagation process to determine the dependence of the pulse wave propagation velocity on branching and other hemodynamic and morphological parameters of blood vessels.
Cardioprotective efficiency of the combined application of remote ischemic pre- and post-conditioning in rats in case of miocardial ischemia/reperfusion
V.V. Sevrukevitch, F.I. Vismont
The cardioprotective efficacy of the combined use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPreC) and remote ischaemic postconditioning (RIPostC) in experimental myocardial ischemia/reper fusion was studied in rats. Experimental myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was reproduced by a 30-minute occlusion of the left coronary artery followed by a period of 120-minute reperfusion. Remote ischemic conditioning was reproduced by short-term occlusion of both femoral arteries followed by reperfusion of the extremities beginning at the following time points: RIPreC – 25 minutes before the end of the myocardial ischemia period, RIPostC – 10 minutes after the end of the myocardial ischemia period, RIPreC + RIPostC – 25 minutes before the start and 10 minutes after the end of myocardial ischemia. It was shown that the combined use of RIPreC and RIPostC had a comparable cardioprotective effect in comparison with each of these methods taken separately. Possible reasons explaining the lack of potentiation of the cardioprotective effect of the combined use of RIPreC with RIPostC can presumably be attributed to: 1) achieving maximum cardioprotection, i.e. the impossibility to further reduce the area of myocardial ischemia, 2) the effect on similar intracellular cardioprotective mechanisms in different conditioning modes.
Medical prevention of post-transfusion complications after transfusion therapy applied in case of severe obstetric blood loss
F.N. Karpenko, A.V. Novik, E.D. Rasyuk, V.V. Pasyukov, V.N. Bordakov, T.V. Vaganova, O.V. Karpenko
The article presents an analysis of the modern approach to the treatment of acute obstetric hemorrhage. Some features of the preparation of leukodepleted and pathogen-reduced blood components are shown and indications for use in severe obstetric blood loss are determined. It has been shown that the pathogen reduction of blood components leads to a decrease the level of coagulation factors (coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen in fresh frozen plasma) by 20–30 %, the activity and number of platelets by 15–20 % in platelet concentrate, does not affect the morphological usefulness of platelets. A “package” of blood components for the provision of emergency transfusion therapy for obstetric bleeding has been calculated. The need for a given quantity of blood components was determined – 2.3 “packages” per 1000 births. The proposed “emergency obstetric care packages” and the organization of their centralized delivery to medical healthcare organizations ensure a high degree of readiness of the blood service to comply with the “golden hour” rule for treating acute severe obstetric hemorrhage and minimize post-transfusion reactions and complications when using them. Pathogen-reduced blood components are expensive. Therefore, their use in clinical practice is indicated for the decreed contingents of recipients: for organ and tissue transplantation, in neonatology, oncohematology and for recipients with “multiple transfusions of blood, its components”, in cardiac surgery and obstetric practice.
Transdermal delivery of drugs and its role in therapy of cardiovascular diseases
N.S. Golyak
Introduction. Transdermal delivery of medicinal substances is based on the penetration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient through the intact skin, its further entry into the systemic bloodstream and, thereafter, to the target organ. Currently, gels, ointments, emulsions and transdermal therapeutic systems (transdermal patches) are used as transdermal agents. Transdermal patches are able to provide a target constant concentration of medicinal substances in blood plasma for a long time (from 1 to 7 days). Transdermal delivery has a number of advantages: increased bioavailability of medicinal substances due to the elimination of losses associated with metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver; reducing the risk of adverse reactions which can be caused by leveling of concentration jumps of the medicinal substances in the blood; painlessness and convenience; possibility to change the dose by varying the area of the patch and the duration of use; possibility to stop the treatment at any time, etc. For patients with chronic diseases requiring constant repeated oral administration of drugs, suffering from dysphagia and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the transdermal route of administration is the most optimal. In some cases, when the patient is unconscious, suffers from sclerosis, or has impaired vital functions (for example, the ability to breathe and swallow independently), transdermal delivery is optimal and in some cases is the only alternative. Purpose. To analyze the current range of drugs for transdermal delivery, to assess the role and prospects of using transdermal delivery in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The search for literary data was carried out using the PubMed and Google search engines among Russian – and English-language original articles. The search of registered drugs in the form of transdermal patches was carried out using drugs registries of the United States and other countries. When searching, the terms «transdermal delivery», «transdermal patch», «bisoprolol», «clopidogrel», «transdermal delivery», «transdermal patch» were used. Conclusion. In the global pharmaceutical market, transdermal delivery is used for a limited number of medicinal substances of different pharmacotherapeutic groups, of which only three medicinal substances (nitroglycerin, clonidine, bisoprolol) are used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Many attempts have been made to obtain and evaluate transdermal patches with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, antiplatelet agents used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but the volume of these studies is insufficient for registration and clinical use.
Herbal medicines for treatment of cardiovascular diseases marketed in the Republic of Belarus
I.L. Kurs, N.S. Gurina
Aim. Marketing research in the segment of herbal medicines for the treatment of the diseases of the cardiovascular system in the Republic of Belarus. Methods. The study of the healthcare market was carried out using analytical and statistical methods by analyzing data from the State Register of Medicines of the Republic of Belarus (as of 01.01.2020) and the database of sales of medicines and biologically active food additives «IQVIA» (data on the sale of medicines for 2019). Data processing was carried out using the Microsoft Office Excel 2016 software package. Results. As of 01.01.2020, 51 herbal medicines from group C (according to the anatomical-therapeutic-chemical classification «Cardiovascular system») were registered in the Republic of Belarus by 29 manufacturers from 10 countries. Most herbal medicines for treatment of cardiovascular diseases are imported (54.90%). According to originality criterion generic herbal medicines from this segment prevail, both in terms of the number of registered names (78.43%) and sales volumes in cash (53.86%) and in kind (96.49%). In terms of composition, monocomponent herbal medicines prevail (56.86%). Among monocomponent medicines the majority of herbal medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are domestic (31.37% of the total number of registered herbal medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases), while among the combined ones the greater part is imported (33.33%). In terms of sales in kind, monocomponent herbal medicines prevail (74.98%), whereas in monetary terms combined ones predominate (40.65%). Conclusion. It is a promising perspective for domestic enterprises to develop combined herbal medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in order to provide the population with more affordable medicines from this segment, as well as to implement the principles of import substitution in the healthcare market of the Republic of Belarus.
The role of x-ray endovascular surgery in the treatment of obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries in elderly and senile patients
S.V. Mshar, V.А. Yanushko
Obliterating atherosclerosis ranks third in the system of cardiovascular disease. With age the incidence of peripheral artery disease increases and makes 3–5% in general population. The most difficult group of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or obliterating atherosclerosis is elderly patients. Currently there is a tendency to increase the life expectancy and aging of the Belarusian population. Elderly and senile patients with obliterating atherosclerosis (PAD) are characterized by a multi-level lesion and damage to the distal parts of the arterial bed, an increase in the number of comorbidities, a high risk of cardiovascular death, and seeking medical help often at the stage of critical lower limb ischemia. Patients at high risk of cardiovascular complications with intermittent lameness are subject to conservative treatment. When developing a clinic for critical lower limb ischemia, due to the low effectiveness of conservative methods of treatment, it is worth considering revascularization of the lower limb arteries. Open surgical methods of treatment are associated with a high risk of complications and mortality. X-ray endovascular methods of treatment of patients of the older age group are characterized by a lower risk of complications, lower injury rate. The use of low-injury x-ray endovascular and hybrid methods of treatment in elderly and senile patients can improve the results of treatment (reduce the frequency of amputations, reduce the risk of complications, improve the quality of life).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases: pathogenetic mechanisms of comorbidity and pharmacological interactions
D.Yu. Ruzanov, E.I. Davidovskaya, A.A. Pleshko, E.A. Grigorenko, I.V. Buynevich
The publication provides a brief overview of the most significant pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms that will explain the phenomenon of comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular pathology (CVD). Moreover, in this review is considered the potential impact of the recommended treatment of COPD on the risks and course of cardiovascular diseases from the perspective of evidence-based medicine. It has been shown that COPD and cardiovascular diseases share single risk factors, common pathogenetic mechanisms, unidirectional pathophysiological processes, similar clinical symptoms and effects synergistically with respect to adverse events and outcomes, which allows us to attribute this combination to category of comorbid pathology. The presented results of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyzes demonstrate that currently no COPD guidelines contain detailed clinical recommendations for assessing cardiovascular risk in this category of patients, nor are there enough guidelines for the treatment of COPD in patients with cardiovascular disease or vice versa. In terms of international experience, it is substantiated that the comorbid pathology of COPD and CVD should not be considered isolated from each other.
Current aspects of drug therapy of chronic heart failure syndrome
T.V. Statkevich, N.P. Mitkovskaya
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an important problem for the country, which has both medical and socio-economic aspects. The presence of the syndrome not only significantly increases the risks of an unfavorable course of diseases underlying its etiological basis, but in itself, through the development of decompensation, causes a high frequency of deaths. Despite all the advances in pharmacotherapy, the prognosis of heart failure remains poor. More than 40% of patients die within 4 years after the diagnosis of heart failure, and the one-year mortality rate for patients with severe CHF (NYHA class IV) exceeds 50%. The foregoing determines the need and importance of using all possible drug and non-drug therapy technologies aimed at reducing mortality, increasing the duration and quality of life of patients with CHF, as well as reducing the number and likelihood of decompensation and related hospitalizations, and makes this direction one of the priorities in medicine. The article describes current approaches to the treatment of patients with CHF syndrome from the perspective of evidence-based medicine and taking into account the recommendations of leading international organizations for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The drugs used were analyzed in terms of their influence on clinical symptoms, quality of life of patients, the risk of hospitalization due to decompensation of CHF, and mortality rates. The emphasis is made on the possibilities, mechanism of action and further prospects for the use of a new class of drugs in the treatment of CHF, acting at the level of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the system of neutral endopeptidases – inhibitors of angiotensin-neprilisin receptors.

Guidelines for Authors

The requirements for submitting scientific articles are based on the 'Unified Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals' of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (the official version is available on the website www.ICMJE.org).

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been previously published or already accepted for publication in other journals. The articles are published in Belarusian, Russian, and English. The articles which do not meet the 'Rules and Norms of Humane Treatment of Biological Objects of Research' are not accepted for publication. All articles submitted to the editorial office undergo multi-stage peer review, including verification by “Anti-plagiarism” system of automatic text checking for borrowings from the publicly available information sources. Comments of reviewers are sent to the author without specifying the names of reviewers. After receiving the reviews and the author’s reply, the editorial board makes a decision on publication (or rejection) of the article. The editors reserve the right to reject the article without stating reasons. The order and sequence of an article publication is determined depending on the volume of published materials and the list of sections in a particular issue. Minor corrections of stylistic, nomenclature and formal character are made without the author’s consent. If the article was processed by the author in the process of preparation for publication, the date of receipt is considered to be the day of the final text submission.

The Editorial Board of the journal 'Emergency Cardiology and Cardiovascular Risks' accepts the following types of articles:

1) original scientific materials and research data;
2) scientific reviews.

The electronic version of the article should be typed in Microsoft Word and printed on one side of the paper, Times New Roman font, 12. The font color is black. size 14 and 1,5 spaced in two copies. The width of the left margin is 3 cm, top and bottom – 2,5 cm, right – 1 cm. Portrait orientation. No hyphenation. Formatting is made in the 'width' parameter. Headings and subheadings are typed in bold with alignment to the left; no dot is placed at the end of the heading. No other text formatting is allowed in the article. One paragraph indent is left before the headings.

1 Article Structure

1.1 Article Description (in Russian)

1.1.1 UDC (Universal Decimal Classification) code

1.1.2 Initials and surnames of the author(s)

1.1.3 Title of the article

1.1.4 Official name of the organization where the authors work (superscript Arabic numerals indicate the institution)

1.1.5 Abstract in Russian (the volume for original research should be from 1800 to 2500 characters with spaces; and at least 1000 characters for review articles and descriptions of clinical cases). Original scientific research articles require structured abstracts: the purpose, methods, main results and conclusions of the work.

1.1.6 Keywords

1.2 Article Description (in English)

1.2.1 Initials and surnames of the author(s) (should correspond to the passport or be transliterated in the BSI system (British Standard Institute; UK, http://translit.ru/)

1.2.2 Title of the article

1.2.3 Official name of the organization where the authors work (superscript Arabic numerals indicate the institution)

1.2.4 Abstract in English (the volume for original research should be from 1800 to 2500 characters with spaces and at least 1000 characters for review articles and descriptions of clinical cases). The abstract is a brief summary of a research article and may be published as a separate entity.

The abstract must outline the most important aspects of the study. Abstracts should have a structured format (for original scientific articles: purpose, methods, results and conclusions). However, the subject, topic, purpose, method of research are given if they are new or of special interest. The text of the abstract should be clear and concise without any secondary information, general statements or complicated grammar structures.

References to the literature and abbreviations (except standard ones) are not allowed.

The results are stated precisely. The main theoretical and experimental findings, actual data, discovered relationships and patterns are given. Special emphasis should be placed on the new findings and the data having potential practical implication. 

The conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, evaluations, suggestions, hypotheses, described in the article.

The abstract in English should not be a mere translation of the Russian version.

1.2.5 Keywords (according to MeSH).

2 Article Body

Depending on the type of the manuscript, the structure of the full text may be different.

The volume of original research and clinical cases descriptions, including figures, tables, literature index and summary should not exceed 30 thousand characters with spaces and that of reviews and lectures - 45 thousand characters with spaces.

Abbreviations are not allowed to be used, except for the chemical and common abbreviations, mathematical values, measurements and terms. The author of the article is to use the International System of Units (SI).

2.1 Original scientific articles

Original scientific articles contain the results of original research.

Sections of Original Scientific Article:

  • Introduction (not exceeding 2 pages) should state the topicality of the problem, including its significance (prevalence, morbidity, etc.) as well as mediated effects (social, economic). The solved and unsolved aspects of the problem should be identified with the analysis of previously published data.
  • Purpose of research;
  • Methods (the section should contain information on the design of the study, its duration, the method for evaluating the results, testing the hypothesis with describing the statistical methods and processing the results);
  • Results (description of the research content and main findings in detail; if necessary the section may be broken into subsections);
  • Discussion (the obtained results should be discussed from the point of view of novelty and compared with the known data);
  • Conclusion (should be presented in the form of a complete text);
  • Source of financing (specify the source of funding for the work);
  • Conflict of interests (presence of obvious and potential conflicts of interests, that is, conditions and facts that can influence the results of the research or their interpretation);
  • Expression of gratitude.

2.2 Scientific Review

The purpose of the review article should be a discussion of the accumulated material and the presentation of a new view of the author on previously described phenomena, a rethinking and search for new approaches to their interpretation, but not just listing the facts and stating the current state of the problem.

Sections of Scientific Reviews:

  • Introduction;
  • Discussion (may be presented as a separate section or run systematically through the text);
  • Conclusion (should be presented in the form of a complete text);
  • Source of financing (specify the source of funding for the analytical work);
  • Conflict of interests (presence of conflicts of interests, i.e. conditions and facts that can affect the results of the research or their interpretation);
  • Expression of gratitude.

3 References

Bibliographic index is placed at the end of the original article and should not contain more than 25 sources cited by the author. For scientific reviews it may be of no more than 50 sources in order of mention. In the text the author makes reference to the serial Index number in square brackets. Bibliographical description of the cited references should be in accordance with the requirements of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Republic of Belarus.

According to the requirements of international systems of citation the authors of the articles have to present references in the original language and in Latin alphabet. English references are identical to the ones transliterated to Latin alphabet.

4 Author information

The following elements must be included:

  • full names of all authors, their academic titles and degrees
  • postal address of the institution, the e-mail of each author and phone numbers

5 Tables

All the tables should be titled, numbered and self-explanatory. The data presented in tables should correspond to the numbers in the text but not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. References to tables in the text are required. The titles of the tables and descriptions should be duplicated in English.

6 Illustrations

The quantity of graphics should be minimal.  Each illustration should have numbered picture captions. References to illustrations are required.  The titles of the figures and diagrams and their descriptions should be also duplicated in English. Links to figures in the text are required.

Illustrations (graphs, charts, drawings) performed in MS Office format should be contrast and clear. Illustrations should be performed in a separate file in*.jpeg, *.bmp, *.gif formats and placed in the article as fixed images. Do not use MS WORD to apply any elements on top of the inserted image (arrows, captions) due to the high risk of missing symbols during the editing and page make-up stages.

Photos, screenshots and other images should be embedded in the main text and also provided as separate files in *.jpeg, *.bmp, *.gif formats (*.doc and *.docx – in case of additional marks). The resolution of photographic images should be >300 dpi.

Each file should be titled and correspond to the image number in the text. In the file description picture captions should be placed and correspond to the name of the image embedded in the text.

The article should be submitted to the editor in the electronic version with the signatures of the authors. The article must be accompanied by a Letter of Application written in a free form.

Submission of an article for publication to 'Emergency Cardiology and Cardiovascular Risks' journal implies the consent of the author (s) with the published rules.

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The order of reviewing article manuscripts submitted to the scientific and practical peer-reviewed journal “Emergency Cardiology and Cardiovascular Risks”

Manuscripts of all scientific articles submitted to the editors are subject to mandatory review by two independent experts. Review is carried out by the scientists who are recognized experts in the field of reviewed materials and work in the field of knowledge to which the content of the manuscript belongs and who have had publications on the subject of the article under review over the last three years.

The author, supervisor of a scientific degree scholar or coauthors of the reviewed work cannot be reviewers. The review of a scientific article is issued in accordance with the Memo to the reviewer of scientific articles and materials submitted to the journal “Emergency Cardiology and Cardiovascular Risks”.

Manuscripts are not considered for publication in case they do not meet the “Rules for Authors” which are published for convenience in the journal and its electronic version.

The editor informs the author about the review result by providing a copy of the review. The review contains recommendations for publication, correction and improvement of the article or a reasonable refusal. The author of the manuscript may take into account the recommendations when preparing a new version of the article or reasonably refute them. Articles refined by the author are resubmitted for review by a reviewer who made critical comments. The incoming date is considered to be the date of the refined article submission. If the author disagrees with the reviewer's comments, he may apply for a second review engaging a third expert or withdraw the article.

Articles and article reviews are discussed at the meeting of the editorial board, which serves as a basis to accept or reject an article. The decision of the editorial board is registered in by the protocol.

The order and priority of publications are determined depending on the volume of published materials and the list of subdivisions in a particular issue.

The editorial board does not guarantee the publication of all submitted materials. The article will not be accepted for consideration if it has been published or sent to other journals, the authors have not provided their complete personal data or the article does not meet the “Rules for Authors”. The editors reserve the right to edit the article without notifying the authors.

The final decision on the expediency of publications after their reviewing is made by the editorial board.

Articles not allowed for publication:

  • manuscripts which are not related to the scientific area of the journal;
  • manuscripts which do not meet the design requirements and their authors refuse to make their technical refinement;
  • manuscripts, the authors of which did not change the article according to the constructive requirements of the reviewer;

manuscripts, representing significant plagiarism due to copying data or conclusions from another author’s research without proper citation/reference (according to the recommendations of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics)); resubmission of the publication under the name of another author (in the original language or in translation); verbatim copying of more than 100 words from another (including his own) publication in the absence of a properly arranged quotation; unpublished borrowings of previously published ideas or hypotheses of other authors, and/or those that have not been tested by the “Anti-plagiarism” Automatic Text Checking System for borrowing from publicly available information sources.

If plagiarism is suspected:

the editorial board informs the experts and the author(s) of the material in writing about the initiation of the editorial investigation and its expected timeframe (2 months). Based on the results of the editorial investigation, a written statement is drawn up (stored in the editorial office), copies of which are provided to the person who discovered the fact of plagiarism and the author(s) about the decision made and the undertaken actions.

In case of insignificant plagiarism the editors of the journal must notify the author about the fact of plagiarism and obtain written explanations. If a violation by the author is qualified as unintentional, confine to a reprimand and sending a message about the inappropriateness of repeated cases. A revised manuscript with references to all original sources of borrowing may be published.

Manuscripts and electronic versions of both published and unpublished materials are not returned.

Reviews are kept in the editorial office for five years.

About Us

ISSN 2616-633X

Publishing semi-annual
Articles in Russian. Summaries in English

Address:

Dzerzhinski Ave., 83, Minsk, Republic of Belarus, 220116
Tel: +375 17 277-12-01.
Fax: +375 17 277-12-02
E-mail:  emcardio@bsmu.by
Web-site:  https://emcardio.bsmu.by

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Natalya P. Mitkovskaya, MD, PhD. Educational Institution «Belarusian State Medical University», Minsk, Belarus

Executive Secretary: Ekaterina B. Petrova, PhD Educational Institution «Belarusian State Medical University», Minsk, Belarus

Executive Editorial Office Secretary: Olga V. Laskina. Educational Institution «Belarusian State Medical University», Minsk, Belarus

 

Editor-in-chief greeting

 

Publication Ethics

Editorial Board

Sikorskij A.V., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor  (Minsk, Belarus)
Vojtovich T.N., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Gelis L.G., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Gubkin S.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Danilova L.I., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Dzjadz`ko A.M., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Karpov I.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Kirkovkij V.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Kozlovkij V.i., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Vitebsk, Belarus)
Kopitov A.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Ostrovskij Ju.P. A.Yu., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor  (Minsk, Belarus)
Petrova M.N., PhD in Philological sciences, Associate Professor  (Minsk, Belarus)
Pristrom A.M., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Rudenko E.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Rudenok V.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Ruzanov D.Yu., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Gomel, Belarus)
Salivonchik D.P., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Gomel, Belarus)
Sidorovich E. K., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Sudzhaeva O.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences (Minsk, Belarus)
Uss A.L., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Tsapaeva N.L., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Yanushko A.V., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Grodno, Belarus)

 

Advisory Editorial Board

(International Consultative Committee)

Abel`skaya I.S., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Khryshchanovich V.Ya., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Azimferey Leonhard, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Tîrgu Mureș, Romania)
Arutjunov G.P., Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Bedel'baeva G.G., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Almaty, Kazakhstan)
Beljaeva L.N., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Vismont F.I., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences o Belarus , Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Dzhunusbekova G.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Almaty, Kazakhstan)
Drapkina O.M., Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences , Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Dudarenko S.V., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
Kamilova U.K., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)
Kibira Satoshi, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Akita, Japan)
Koziolova N.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Perm, Russian Federation)
Kostjuk William, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (London, Canada)
Krasnyj S.A., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Kubarko A.I., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Kul'chickij V.A., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,  Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Linn Tommi, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Stockholm, Sweden)
Mrochek A.G., Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,  Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Oganov R.G., Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences,  Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Ostrovskij Ju.P., Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,  Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Pershagen Joran, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Stockholm, Sweden)
Pinevich D.L., First Deputy Minister of Health of the Republic of Belarus (Minsk, Belarus)
Rebrov A.P., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Saratov, Russian Federation)
Rud Charls, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Berkeley, USA)
Rummo O.O., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Skugarevskij O.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Snezhickij V.A., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Grodno, Belarus)
Sukalo A.V., Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,  Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Tiffi Patrik, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (London, Canada)
Tret'jak S.I., Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Fedoruk A.M., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Hirmanov V.N., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
Zhebentyayev A.I., Grand PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor (Vitebsk, Belarus)
Gurina N.S., Grand PhD in Biological sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Tsarenkov V.M., Grand PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Khishova O.M., Grand PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor (Vitebsk, Belarus)
Kuznetsov V.A., Grand PhD in Medical sciences, Professor (Tyumen, Russian Federation)

 

Publishing Group

Balysh E. M., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Rachok L.V., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Volod'ko Ju.S., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Gerasimenok D.S., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Grigorenko E.A., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Mazanik Ju.N., (Minsk, Belarus)
Martusevich N.A., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Pyko A.A., PhD in Medical sciences (Minsk, Belarus)
Rustamov M.N., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Skakun L.N., (Minsk, Belarus)
Statkevich T.V., PhD in Medical sciences, Associate Professor (Minsk, Belarus)
Tenjushko E.S., (Minsk, Belarus)
Lanushevskaia A.V., (Minsk, Belarus)
Korzhenevskaia Iu.V., (Minsk, Belarus)
Tkachyova O.A., design, computer layout (Minsk, Belarus)
Vinokurov V.F., design, computer layout (Minsk, Belarus)
Zhuk L.I., editor (Minsk, Belarus)